Differentiate Process Implementing Strategies

Strategy Readiness Interest Learning Profile
Tiered Activities readiness bullet
Learning Centers readiness bullet interest bullet learning profile bullet
Interactive Journals readiness bullet interest bullet
Graphic Organizers readiness bullet learning profile bullet
Jigsaw Activities readiness bullet interest bullet
Manipulatives readiness bullet learning profile bullet

 

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Tiered Activities

Tiered Activities

For Your Information

When teachers tier content, all students complete the same activity (e.g., a worksheet, report), but the content varies in difficulty. When teachers tier process, the activities by which the students learn information vary in complexity.

One way to differentiate process for heterogeneous classrooms is to design tiered lessons. When teachers tier a lesson, they design instructional tasks that are challenging for students at different levels of readiness: low, middle, and high levels. Although the students should master the same content or core skills, the means by which they do so vary. The activities assigned to the low, middle, and high groups often differ in complexity, depth of information, or level of abstraction.

Before tiering a lesson on a particular skill or topic area, the teacher should preassess the students. She should then use that information to help assign students to each of the readiness levels and to begin designing the lesson.

Step 1:

Consider your students’ range of knowledge on the topic or about the skill, their prior knowledge, and their reading levels. Also keep in mind your students’ interests and learning profiles.

Step 2:

Create an activity that is challenging, engaging, and targets the topic or skill.

Some teachers prefer to begin with the middle group and then design activities for students who are struggling and those who are more advanced. Others prefer to design an activity that is challenging for the advanced learners and modify for the average and struggling learners to ensure that high standards are maintained for each group. The table below outlines features for a tiered lesson with three groups that target struggling, average, and advanced learners.

Group 1: Students who are struggling with a topic
  • Requires less difficult independent reading.
  • Has materials based on the average reading level of the participants, which is usually below grade level.
  • Has spare text and lots of graphic aids.
  • Has a low level of abstraction (i.e., is as concrete as possible).
  • Requires fewer steps to complete the assignment
  • Converges on “right answers” to solve problems.
  • Requires only knowledge and comprehension levels of thinking for independent work.
  • Includes supportive strategies, such as graphic organizers or teacher prompting to help students infer and draw conclusions. (i.e., use higher level thinking skills)
Group 2: Average learners
  • Includes independent reading materials from the textbook or other on-grade level sources.
  • Uses concrete concepts to help students transition to more abstract concepts.
  • Includes questions or problems that are a mix of open-ended and “right answers.”
  • Can have more steps.
  • Expects students to infer and draw conclusions with less teacher support. Teacher should count on being on hand if necessary to prompt students in this area.
  • Ensures that students can be successful with knowledge, comprehension, and application on their own, and that with help they can address some of the high levels of thinking
Group 3: Advanced or gifted learners
  • Includes reading materials from sources more complex than the textbook, if possible.
  • Requires more lengthy sources because students can read faster than lower or average students.
  • Focuses on abstract concepts as much as possible and uses open-ended questions exclusively.
  • Requires students to infer and evaluate.
  • Assumes students have knowledge, comprehension, and application abilities, and that they will be challenged only if you ask them to analyze, synthesize, and evaluate.

Adapted from Spencer Northey, S. (2005). Handbook on Differentiated Instruction for Middle and High Schools. Larchmont, NY: Eye On Education, p. 76

Below is an example of a lesson that is tiered in process (according to readiness). Note how each group is working on different tasks even though all students are working on the same key concept.

Language Arts–Fourth Grade
Key Concept: Reading books with chapters to show how ideas are advanced.
Lesson: Chapters 3 and 4 of the book Help, I’m a Prisoner in the Library (students have previously read chapters 1 and 2.)

Group 1 Group 2 Group 3
This group will work on knowledge/ comprehension tasks for chapters 3 and 4.

  1. Where does Mary Rose find the phone?
  2. Which sister has the bigger imagination? How does she picture the librarian in her mind? Find the passage on p. 23 that describes her idea of the librarian and write down the descriptive words.
  3. What is a blizzard?

(Note: For illustrative purposes, only 3 of 10 questions have been listed.)

Now draw a picture of some part of chapters 3 and 4 that you think is the scariest.

This group will work at the analysis level to study the events in chapters 3 and 4.

  1. Make two lists, one with Mary Rose at the top and one with Jo-Beth at the top. Under each girl, list things about her that you find in these chapters.
  2. Now create a Venn diagram in which you draw two circles with a part of each circle joining the other circle. In the joined section, put words that show things that are the same for both girls. In the part of the circles that is not shared, put your words from each of your lists about the girls.
  3. Explain your circle diagram to the class.

Share with the class your descriptions in your Venn diagrams.

This group will work on synthesis/ evaluation tasks for chapters 3 and 4.

  1. Tell the story from the point of view of the Mynah bird. Go back through chapters 3 and 4 and first list all the things the Mynah bird sees and says. Then write these chapters from its point of view.
  2. Or—Think about all the scary things that happen in chapters 3 and 4. List them in order from least scary to most scary telling why each item is scary.

Share your work with the class during sharing time.

Adapted from http://www.doe.in.gov/exceptional/gt/tiered_curriculum/languagearts/la4r.htm

Learning Centers

Learning Centers

Students with foldersA learning center is a defined area of the classroom organized around a topic, theme, or activity in which students learn, practice, or build on a concept or skill. Learning centers, most often used in elementary classrooms, are an effective way for teachers to offer a range of activities that can target students’ readiness levels, interests, or learning profiles. The center should contain the instructions and the materials that students will need to complete the activity. If the teacher is using the center to differentiate by readiness level, it is helpful to color-code the materials. Although students can work in small groups or pairs to complete a learning center activity, they often complete these activities independently.

Learning Center

butterfly life cycleThis is an example of a learning center based on readiness level (struggling students, red folders; average students, orange folders; advanced students, green folders).

Theme: Metamorphosis
Unit of Study: Insects
Materials: Plastic models of each stage of the butterfly’s life cycle, pictures of all stages of the life cycle, poster of different caterpillars and the corresponding butterflies, books about the butterfly’s life cycle, a bug box containing several caterpillars.

Activity: Using the table provided, describe each stage of the life cycle (what it looks like, what butterflies eat during each, number of days in stage)
Activity: Create a table and record three characteristics for each stage of the butterfly’s life cycle
Activity: Create a table and record five characteristics for each stage of the butterfly’s life cycle. In addition, do this for the life cycle of a frog. Compare and contrast.

Tip

Students find learning centers more engaging if they are decorated with items that relate to the topic of the activity. For example, during a history unit on the Pilgrims, the learning center might contain a trunk of period clothing and be decorated to represent the deck of the Mayflower.

In addition to learning centers, learning stations and interest centers offer students opportunities to acquire information about a topic or skill.

Learning Stations

atmospheric rain cycle

Learning stations are areas of the classroom organized around a topic, theme, or skill. They can target students’ readiness levels, interests, or learning profiles. The teacher creates several stations that cover portions of the material. To learn about the topic, students must complete the activities at each station. For example, during a unit on weather, the teacher might create four learning stations: temperature, atmospheric pressure, clouds, and the water cycle.

Interest Centers

frog life cycle

Interest centers are a type of learning center. They provide an opportunity for students to acquire in-depth knowledge about a topic of interest. Unlike in traditional learning centers, students are not required to complete the activities in the center but can choose to visit the center when time allows. The topic might or might not be related to the unit of study. For example, when teaching about metamorphosis using the life cycle of the butterfly, the teacher might also create an interest center focusing on the life cycle of the frog so that students can delve deeper into the topic.

Interactive Journals

Interactive Journals

Student and teacherAn interactive journal, sometimes referred to as a dialogue journal, is a notebook in which the student and teacher communicate through writing. The teacher can differentiate instruction by varying the journal prompts for different groups of students based on interests or readiness level. The teacher should introduce journaling as an in-class activity. He or she can allow students up to ten minutes at the beginning or end of class once or twice per week to complete an entry. When students understand the procedures for completing a journal entry, the teacher might assign this activity as homework. After the students complete their entries, the teacher should read them and respond in a timely manner. Because this activity is meant to encourage students to write openly, the teacher should not correct grammar, spelling, or content. Instead, the teacher should model good writing. Below is an example.

When you told me about yourself, you said that last year you visited Spain with your family. That is wonderful! I want to know more about it. Why did you go and how long were you there? What did you see and what was your favorite part of the trip? What was the food like?
I went to Spain with my family last year. It was a vacation, we were there for two weeks. My mother speaks spanish. I saw Alcazar, a castle in Sevil that is really old. There were other castles too. I learned that Spain was once conquerred by the Moors, who were north Africans. My favorite part of the trip was the beach and swimming. Me and my sisters rode horses too. The food in Spain was really, really good. I liked patatas bravas, which is kind of like French fries. I liked the fish too but not chiperones. It is squid.

Tip

By staggering the reading of student journals across several days, teachers give themselves more time to respond thoughtfully.

For Your Information

Girl WritingTeachers can use journals as a form of ongoing assessment. By reading a student’s journal entry, the teacher can determine his or her depth of understanding and identify gaps in his or her knowledge.

Graphic Organizers

Graphic Organizers

A graphic organizer, sometimes called a web or concept map, can be a diagram, outline, or chart on which students arrange information. By using graphic organizers, students can:

  • Gather important information
  • Organize information
  • More easily process information
  • See relationships between ideas
  • More easily understand, remember, and apply information

graphic representation of a graphic organizerAs a general rule, graphic organizers should be simple in nature. To maximize differentiation, the teacher should be very flexible when using graphic organizers. The teacher can do this by:

  • Allowing students to choose the type of graphic organizer to use
  • Allowing students to choose how to complete the organizer (e.g., with text, with illustrations, in home language)
  • Filling in some, a little, or none of the graphic organizer for students at different levels
  • Providing direct access to the information needed to complete the organizer versus asking students to research the information independently
  • Providing a graphic organizer that requires basic information instead of very detailed information

To learn more about different types of graphic organizers, see the table below.

Venn Diagram

Venn Diagram

An organizer that helps students understand what information two topics have in common, as well as what is unique to each.

Frayer Model

Frayer Model

An organizer that helps students learn about new concepts. The new word is written in the middle and the student fills in the remaining boxes.

KWL Chart

KWL Chart

 

An organizer to determine what students know about a topic, what they want to learn, and what they have learned. The first two columns are filled in before reading the material and the last column is filled in as the student progresses through the unit (e.g., added to column at the end of each day) or at the end of the unit.

Flow Chart

 

Flow Chart

 

An organizer that helps students describe a process or other sequential information.

Word Web

Word Web

 

An organizer that helps students describe a process or other sequential information. An organizer that helps students gain a deeper understanding of the meaning of a word.

The word is written in the center and synonyms, antonyms, and examples are written in shapes that surround the center word.

Tree Diagram

Tree Diagram

 

An organizer that helps students understand hierarchical relationships.

Jigsaw Activities

Jigsaw Activities

jigsaw puzzle pieceJigsaw is a cooperative learning strategy in which the class is divided into small groups consisting of five to six students. These small groups serve as the students’ home base. Each member of the home-base group is assigned to an “expert” group to learn a portion of the content. After the students meet in their expert group and learn their specified content, they return to their home-base groups to share what they have learned with the other group members. This strategy allows everyone in the class to learn all the content relevant to the subject, as opposed to just the piece they were responsible for. The jigsaw strategy can be implemented during one class period or across a number of class periods, depending on the depth or complexity of the content or skill being learned.

  1. Create small heterogeneous groups of five to six students (i.e., home-base groups).
  2. Assign one student per group to be the leader.
  3. Divide the lesson into sections. The number of sections will depend on how many students are in the groups.
  4. Assign one student from each group to learn a section of the lesson. Teachers can assign students based on readiness or interest.
  5. Allow students time to study the content for the section they have been assigned.
  6. Direct students to meet with students from other groups who have been assigned the same section of the lesson (i.e., “expert” groups). Give students time to learn the content and to practice how they will present this information to their home-base groups.
  7. Instruct students to return to their home-base groups.
  8. Provide time for each student in the home-base group to report their findings. Also encourage group members to ask questions of the presenter for greater understanding and clarification. (Note: The leader will be responsible for making sure that each member of the group is given time to present their information and participate in the discussion.)
  9. Monitor the groups.
  10. Assess the students’ understanding of the concept or skill.
Adapted from Jigsaw Classroom. http://www.jigsaw.org/steps.htm

In the example that follows, the teacher uses the ten steps listed above to implement the jigsaw strategy during a unit on Brazil. He implements this strategy across a one-week period.

Step 1 On the first day, the teacher divides the thirty students into five home-base groups.step 1
Step 1 He also chooses a leader for each group (denoted by star).step 2
Step 2 Because each group contains six students, he divides the lesson into six sections or topics:

step 3 culture
 economy
 history
 government
 geography
 demographics

Step 4 He assigns one student at each table a topic (e.g., culture) based on his or her readiness level and interests.
Step 5 He allows the students thirty minutes in class to read the materials on their topic and allows them to complete their research as homework.
Step 6 The second day, the teacher instructs the students to get into their expert groups (e.g., culture). On the second and third day, he allows them to discuss their topic and to practice their presentations. As the students work, the teacher walks from group to group to monitor their progress and to provide help when needed.
Step 7 On the fourth day, the students meet with their home-base groups to share their expertise.
Step 8 During this fourth day, the teacher allows thirty minutes for the students (approximately five minutes per student) in the group to report what they have learned about Brazil.
Step 9 Again, the teacher monitors the students and provides needed support.
Step 10 On the fifth day, the teacher assesses the students’ knowledge of Brazil.

Manipulatives

Manipulatives

Teachers can differentiate instruction by providing manipulatives for those students who are having difficulty understanding a concept. Manipulatives are concrete objects that students can use to develop a conceptual understanding of a topic or skill. These objects help students represent the idea they are trying to learn or the problem they are trying to solve. For example, the teacher might demonstrate the idea of fractions by slicing a pie into pieces. It is important that the teacher make explicit the connection between the concrete object and the abstract concept being taught. Below are several examples of students using manipulatives.

A student uses a number line

A student uses a number line (i.e., a visual representation) to add two single-digit numbers.

Two students use an abacus

Two students use an abacus to practice counting by fives.

A student uses colored cubes

A student uses colored cubes to work on pattern recognition.

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