References and Resources and Credits


To cite this module, please use the following:

The IRIS Center. (2010). Differentiated instruction: Maximizing the learning of all students. Retrieved from


The Access Center. (n.d.). Differentiated instruction for math. Retrieved from

The Access Center. (n.d.). Enhancing your instructional skills through differentiation. PowerPoint slides. Retrieved from

Adams, C., Pierce, R., & Dixon, F. (2007). Tiered curriculum project. Retrieved from

Allan, S. D., & Goddard, Y. L. (2010, October). Differentiated instruction and RTI: A natural fit. Educational Leadership, 68(2). Retrieved from

American Federation of Teachers. (2007). Building parent-teacher relationships. Retrieved from

Anderson, L. W., Krathwohl, D. R., Airasian, P. W., Cruikshank, K. A., Mayer, R. E., Pintrich, P. R., Raths, J., & Wittrock, M. C. (2001). A taxonomy for learning, teaching, and assessing: A revision of Bloom’s taxonomy of educational objectives. New York: Longman.

Arnold, S., & Kozleski, E. (n.d.). Differentiating instruction: Meeting the needs of ALL students. PowerPoint slides. Retrieved from…/Differentiating_Instruction_II.ppt. No longer available.

Aronson, E. (n.d.). Jigsaw classroom [Website]. Retrieved from

Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development. [online course]. Success with differentiated instruction. Retrieved from No longer available.

Baumgartner, T., Lipowski, M. B., & Rush, C. (2003). Increasing reading achievement of primary and middle school students through differentiated instruction. (Master of Arts research project). Saint Xavier University. Retrieved from

Benjamin, A. (2003). Differentiated instruction: A guide for elementary teachers. Larchmont, NY: Eye on Education.

Benjamin, A. (2005). Differentiated instruction using technology: A guide for middle and high school teachers. Larchmont, NY: Eye on Education.

Burden, P. R., & Byrd, D. M. (2007). Methods for effective teaching: Promoting k–12 student understanding (4th ed.). Boston, MA: Pearson.

Center for Applied Technology (CAST). (2007). Universal design for learning and differentiated instruction: Compatible approaches. Retrieved from

Center for Excellence in Learning and Teaching. (n.d.). A model of learning objectives. Retrieved from

Center for Teaching Support & Innovation. (2006). Ice-breakers: Getting to know your class. Retrieved from No longer available.

Chappuis, J., Stiggins, R., Chappuis, S., & Arter, J. (2007). Classroom assessment for student learning: Doing it right, using it well (2nd ed.). Boston, MA: Pearson.

Clemson University. (n.d.). Bloom’s taxonomy action verbs. Retrieved from

Council for Exceptional Children. (n.d.). Differentiated instruction. Retrieved from No longer available.

Ellis, E., Gable, R. A., Gregg, M., & Rock, M. L. (2008). REACH: A framework for differentiating classroom instruction. Preventing School Failure, 52(2), 31–47.

Emmer, E. T., Evertson, C. M., Clements, B. S., & Murray, E. W. (1997). Classroom management for secondary teachers (4th ed.). Boston, MA: Allyn and Bacon.

Geoffroy, J. (2009). Essential principles for embarking on differentiated instruction. Retrieved from

Grande, M. (2008). Using dialogue journals and interest inventories with classroom volunteers. TEACHING Exceptional Children, 41(2), 56-–63. Retrieved from No longer available.

Greece Central School District. (n.d.). RAFT: Role, audience, format, topic. Retrieved from

Hall, T. (2002, June). Differentiated instruction: Effective classroom practices report. Retrieved from

Hall, T. (2002). Differentiated instruction. Wakefield, MA: National Center on Accessing the General Curriculum.

Hall, T., Strangman, N., & Meyer, A. (n.d.). Differentiated instruction and implications for UDL implementation. Retrieved from

Huebner, T. A. (2010, February). Differentiated learning. Education Leadership, 67(5), 79–81. Retrieved from

King-Shaver, B., & Hunter, A. (2003). Differentiated instruction in the English classroom: Content, process, product, and assessment. Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann.

Lenz, B. K., Deshler, D. D., & Kissam, B. R. (2004). Teaching content to all: Evidence-based inclusive practices in middle and secondary school. Boston, MA: Pearson.

McQuarrie, L., McRae, P., & Stack-Cutler, H. (2008, February). Differentiated instruction provincial research review: Choice, complexity, and
creativity. Alberta Initiative for School Improvement. Retrieved from

The National Research Center on the Gifted and Talented. (n.d.). Differentiation using curriculum compacting. Retrieved from

Nolet, V., & McLaughlin, M. (2000). Accessing the general curriculum: Including students with disabilities in standards-based reform. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin Press, Inc.

Office of Educational Research and Improvement (OERI). (1993, November). Student portfolios: Classroom uses. Retrieved from

Raygor, A. L. (n.d.). Procedure for writing a term paper. Retrieved from

Reis, S. M., Westberg, K. L., Kulikowich, J., Caillard, F., Hebert, T., Plucker, J., Purcell, J. H., Rogers, J. B., & Smist, J. M. (1993, July). Why not let high ability students start school in January?: The curriculum compacting study. (Research monograph). The University of Connecticut. Retrieved from

Reis, S. M., & Renzulli, J. S. (n.d.). Curriculum compacting: A systemic procedure for modifying the curriculum for above average ability students. Retrieved from

Rolheiser, C., & Ross, J. A. (n.d.). Student self-evaluation: What research says and what practice shows. Retrieved from

San Diego County Office of Education. (n.d.). Graphic organizers. Retrieved from No longer available.

Student Affairs. (n.d.). Learning styles: Cognitive preferences inventory. Retrieved from No longer available.

Taylor, C. S., & Bobbit Nolen, S. (2008). Classroom assessment: Supporting teaching and learning in real classrooms. Upper Saddle River: NJ: Pearson.

Teacher-Learning Collaborative (TLC). (n.d.). Interactive journals. Retrieved from

TeacherVision. (n.d.). Dialogue journals. Retrieved from

Tomlinson, C. A. (2006). An educator’s guide to differentiating instruction. Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin.

Tomlinson, C. A. (2000, August). Differentiating of instruction in the elementary grades. ERIC Digest. Retrieved from

Tomlinson, C. A. (2003). Fulfilling the promise of the differentiated classroom: Strategies and tools for responsive teaching. Alexandria, VA: ASCD.

Tomlinson, C. A. (2001). How to differentiate instruction in mixed-ability classrooms (2nd ed.). Alexandria, VA: ASCD.

Tomlinson, C. A. (2010, March). Responding to the research. Education Update, 52(3). Retrieved on December 5, 2011, from

Tomlinson, C. A., & Eidson, C. C. (2003). Differentiation in practice: A resource guide for differentiating curriculum grades k–5. Alexandria, VA: ASCD.

Tomlinson, C. A., & Eidson, C. C. (2003). Differentiation in practice: A resource guide for differentiating curriculum grades 5–9. Alexandria, VA: ASCD.

Tomlinson, C. A., & Imbeau, M. B. (2010). Leading and managing a differentiated classroom. Alexandria, VA: ASCD.

Tomlinson, C. A., & McTighe, J. (2006). Integrating differentiate instruction & understanding by design. Alexandria, VA: ASCD.

Wilen, W., Hutchison, J., & Bosse, M. I. (2008). Dynamics of effective secondary teaching (6th ed.). Boston, MA: Pearson.

Wormeli, R. (2006). Fair isn’t always equal: Assessing & grading in the differentiated classroom. Portland, ME: Steinhouse.

Zorfass, J., & Wasson, J. (2007, November). Differentiated instruction using technology. PowerPoint slides for the Center for Implementing Technology in Education. Retrieved from

Additional Resources

Additional Resources


Brimijoin, K., Marquissee, E., & Tomlinson, C. A. (2003). Using data to differentiate instruction. Educational Leadership, 60(5), 70–73. Retrieved from

The data-based approach to differentiation gets the treatment in this article. The authors suggest using the assessment data made available by the drive toward yearly standards to create an effective learning environment for more students. Under discussion are “three-dimensional data collection” and the use of assessment information to target learner needs, among much else.

Carolan, J., & Guinn, A. (2007). Differentiation: Lessons from master teachers. Educational Leadership, 64(5), 44–47. Retrieved from

This informative piece examines the methods and practices of classroom differentiation of several veteran teachers. Included here is a discussion of potential barriers to differentiation and how to overcome them, as well as the importance of personalization and using the strengths of one’s students to improve learning outcomes.

Tomlinson, C. A., & Doubet, K. (2005). Reach them to teach them. Educational Leadership, 62(7), 8–15. Retrieved from

This intriguing article details the attempts of four high school instructors to engage their students on an individual level and thereby improve their academic outcomes. On hand are a writing teacher striving to get her students excited about literature and letters, a biology instructor working to energize his classroom with experiments and a sense of discovery, a history and geography teacher making connections between his students and their learning, and a anatomy teachers who uses interaction and a respectful atmosphere to create an environment where learning is fun and vital.

Wormeli, R. (2006). Differentiating for tweens. Educational Leadership, 63(7), 14–19. Retrieved from

This interesting piece lays out a number of strategies for engaging and teaching pre-teen students. Included are notes on allowing more than one way for students to reach yearly standards, teaching to individual student needs, and a rather inventive lesson on the perils of plagiarism.


Benjamin, A. (2002). Differentiated instruction: A guide for middle and high school teachers. Larchmont, NY: Eye on Education.

This book-length work details the initial process, foundations, and effective execution of classroom differentiation in middle and high school. Included is a useful section on differentiation for English language learners (ELL), which details specific examples of English instruction for students from various cultures and language traditions.

Web Resources

ASCD. (n.d.). Differentiated instruction. Website page.

This section of the ASCD Website collects links and online resources having to do with differentiated instruction in the classroom. Visitors will find a simple definition of differentiation, as well as links to articles, books, and online multimedia resources. A list of differentiation experts and information and tools outside the ASCD site are also included.

Dahlman, A., Hoffman, P., & Brauhn, S. (n.d.). Classroom strategies and tools for differentiating instruction in the ESL classroom

This detailed paper sets out a number of steps toward the implementation of differentiated instruction in the classroom. Included are notes about creating learning profiles about students and their instructional needs, identifying appropriate learning goals for the entire classroom, and specific steps for the successful implementation of the strategy.

Differentiation Central. (n.d.). Video archive. Webpage.

This Webpage hosts a wealth of videos from experts on differentiated instruction. Categories address common misconceptions about differentiated instruction, differentiation at various academic levels, instructional strategies, and professional development, among much, much more.

Hall, T., Strangman, N., & Meyer, A. (2011). Differentiated instruction and implications for UDL implementation

This resource examines the link between differentiated instruction and the Universal Design for Learning strategy in today’s classrooms. On hand are detailed notes on identifying the components and features of both methods, as well as process guidelines and a discussion of the current evidence of effectiveness of both instructional strategies.

Huber, J. J. (2010). Culturally responsive differentiated instruction. PowerPoint presentation from the 2010 AEMP Education Forum, Los Angeles Unified School District.

These PowerPoint slides offer ruminations, research, and impetus for those seeking to create a differentiated learning environment in their classrooms. Included are keys to the differentiated classroom, as well as notes on the timing of change and tips for effective planning and implementation.

Sacco, S. (n.d.). What differentiated instruction is, and what it most certainly is not

This short online reference lays out an emphatic definition of the instructional strategy from the point of view of a teacher who learned through a process of trial-and-error.

Willoughby, J. (2000). Differentiating instruction: Meeting students where they are

This brief but informative online resource combines a practical definition of differentiation and a step-by-step formula for laying out its foundations in the classroom. A table suggesting various strategies for differentiation based on content, process, and product is also on hand.



To cite this module, please use the following:

The IRIS Center. (2010). Differentiated instruction: Maximizing the learning of all students. Retrieved from

Content Experts:

Module Developers:
Janice Brown
Kim Skow

Module Production Team:

Jason Miller

Amy Harris
Deb Smith
Naomi Tyler
Zina Yzquierdo

Janet Church

Janet Church
Tiffany Warrington

Audio engineers:
Philip Ives
Brian Smokler

Media specialist/technical support:
Erik Dunton

Web master:
John Harwood

Philip Ives

Erik Dunton


Page 6 movie is courtesy Doing What Work and the U.S. Department of Education.

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Photos of module experts are courtesy themselves. All other media and images are courtesy the IRIS Center.

Expert Interviews:

Carol Ann Tomlinson (pp. 1, 3, 4, 5, 7, 12, Wrap Up movie)
Michelle Giddens (pp. 3, 9, 11, 12)
Lorie Bowman (p. 6 movie)

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